The researchers found that there was no significant difference in the incidence of stroke or death in the women who were randomly assigned to receive estrogen instead of placebo. However, they found that the incidence of death due to stroke was higher in the estrogen group and that the non-fatal strokes in that group were associated with slightly worse neurological and functional impairments at 1 month after stroke. The risk of stroke within the first 6 months after enrollment in the study was also higher among women in the estrogen group. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in the number of TIAs or non-fatal heart attacks. However, participants receiving estrogen were more likely to experience gynecologic complications, particularly vaginal bleeding.