Eligibility Criteria- INCLUSION CRITERIA:
- Age between 18 and 85 years.
- Ability to sit and be active for an hour on a chair (or wheelchair) without cardiac, respiratory and/or pain disturbances as assessed during the screening visit.
- Willingness to commit to participate in the long-term follow-up study (up to 3 months)
- Willingness to give written informed consent.
- Diagnosis of a first clinically apparent unilateral cortical or subcortical stroke at least 3 months prior to study entry
- History of severe neurological illness (e.g. brain tumor, epilepsy or acute seizures, polyneuropathy etc.) or severe cognitive impairment (MMSE less than 23)
- MRI contraindications. (Cardiac pacemakers; Intracardiac lines; Implanted medication pumps; Neural stimulators; blood vessel, cochlear, or eye implants; Metal in the cranium except in the mouth; Dental braces; Metal fragments from occupational exposure; Surgical clips in or near the brain).
- History of alcohol or drug abuse
- Active depression of any severity with psychoactive medication changes in the last 2 months, active psychosis, disruptive or violent behavior, poor motivational capacity as assessed by the study physician by patient questioning
- Aphasia or language disturbances that would interfere with performing the study tasks
- Uncontrolled medical problems (e.g., active cancer or renal disease, any type of end-stage pulmonary or cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or other medical conditions, as determined by the study physician, that would interfere with participation in this study).
- Increased intracranial pressure as evaluated by clinical means (fundoscopic exam).
- Severe neglect or ataxia that would interfere in the completion of the study tasks.
- History of more than one stroke or a stroke that affects both sides of the brain, the brainstem, or the cerebellum.
- Inflammation of the tissue, severe rheumatoid arthritis, or abnormal function of the joints due to arthritis in the affected arm used most often.