Inclusion Criteria- 13 years or older
- Stable medical condition
- Diagnosed with oropharyngeal dysphagia confirmed by MBS baseline measure of the follow two scales:
1. Penetration-Aspiration Scale score of 2 or greater verified by modified barium swallow (Rosenbek et al., 1996) and/or
2. Functional Oral Intake Scale score of 5 or lower (Crary et al., 2005)
- Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 23 or greater indicating cognitive ability to follow directions and communicate preferences
- Willingness to travel SRMH 2 or more times to undergo initial evaluation, device use training and checkup at 3 months.
Exclusion Criteria- Pregnancy
- Cardiac problems
- history of cardiac rhythm condition (including heart murmur or cardiac arrhythmia)
- cardiac pacemaker in place
- Highly-pigmented (dark) skin color is an exclusion criterion because near-infrared spectroscopy requires the measurement of the degree of absorption of different wavelengths of light after being reflected back through the scalp. Highly pigmented skin interferes with wavelength transmission, making the measurement of changes in absorption inaccurate.
- Lack of a primary care physician who can be contacted if there are findings on the MRI.
- Presence of metal in the body (prostheses, electrodes, shrapnel, aneurism clips, other medical hardware)
- Presence of certain tattoos with ferromagnetic metal or permanent makeup, due to the exposure to high magnetic force through MRI procedures.
- Subjects who were metal workers as a previous occupation will also be excluded due to the possibility of unknown/undetected metal in their body.
- Volunteers with broken skin in the area that the fNIRS probes will be placed on the scalp
- Previous surgery that used surgical staples
- Artificial joints