Inclusion Criteria- All patients aged >= 18 years with at least one year of enrollment with the primary care practice and one year since first health contact recorded in the database THIN(The Health Improvement Network) or CPRD(Clinical Practice Research Datalink) prior to index prescription date will be included.
- Patients with first prescription of DOACs (rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban) during the study period.
- Diagnosis NVAF (any time prior index date or within the 2 weeks after the index date)
Exclusion Criteria- Patients having the history of valvular replacement or mitral stenosis (prior to index date or 2 weeks after index-date)
- Patients who have any record of being prescribed their index drug prior to the enrolment period or who qualify as members of more than one cohort on the same day.