Inclusion Criteria1. ≥3 months onset from a first-ever unilateral stroke;
2. minimal motor criteria to receive CIT (i.e., ≥10º wrist extension and ≥ 10º extension at the thumb and any two other digits);
3. an initial FMA-UE score of 10 to 56, indicating mild to moderate and moderate to severe upper extremity motor impairment;
4. no excessive spasticity in any of the joints of the affected arm (shoulder, elbow, wrist, and fingers);
5. able to follow instructions and perform the study tasks (Mini Mental State Examination ≥ 22);
6. without upper extremity fracture within 3 months;
7. no participation in any rehabilitation experiments or drug studies during the study period; and (8) willing to provide written informed consent.
Exclusion Criteria1. acute inflammatory disease;
2. major health problems or poor physical condition that might limit participation; and (3) attend any other study in recent 3 months.