T-AEX improved both functional mobility and cardiovascular fitness in patients with chronic stroke and was more effective than reference rehabilitation common to conventional care. Only T-AEX (n=25) increased cardiovascular fitness (17% versus 3%, 8% T-AEX versus R-CONTROL (n=20), P=0.005). T-AEX improved ambulatory performance on 6-minute walks (30% versus 11%, P=0.02) and mobility function indexed by WIQ distance scores (56% versus 12%, P=0.05). In the T-AEX group, increasing training velocity predicted improved VO peak (r=0.43, P=0.05), but not walking function. In contrast, increasing training session duration predicted improved 6-minute walk (r=0.41, P=0.05), but not fitness gains.