Inclusion Criteria- Participant is willing and able to give informed consent for participation in the study.
- Male or Female, aged 18 - 80 years.
- Patients should be at least six months post first symptomatic stroke affecting motor function of the hand.
Exclusion Criteria- Anyone who does not have adequate understanding of verbal and written information in English, sufficient to complete any of the safety screening forms.
- Anyone who has a previous history of epilepsy, febrile convulsions as a child or recurrent fainting fits. Likewise, anyone who has a significant family history of epilepsy would be excluded as all these conditions carry a theoretical risk of increasing susceptibility to seizures.
- Any person who has a history of drug abuse or a previous history of a neurological or psychiatric illness, or has a history of neurosurgical procedure is excluded as they may be at increased risk of epilepsy and data collected may be influenced by their condition.
- Patients on some prescription medications such as anti-depressants may be excluded as they may be at an increased risk of seizures.
- Anyone who is currently taking or who has taken anti-malarial treatment in the last 72 hours.
- Pregnant women are excluded as a precaution as there is no data on the effect on maternal cranial stimulation on the fetus.
- Any metallic implant in the neck, head, or eye and anyone with any implanted electrical devices would be excluded as there is a risk of heating with both TMS and TDCS stimulation.
- Anyone with any metal implants or implantable device would be excluded as indicated by the MRI safety screening form. People who suffer with claustrophobia as they are unable to tolerate the scanner.
- Patients who have had more than one stroke. Patients who have had a stroke will also be excluded if they have limited communication in the form of aphasia or a history of dementia.