Inclusion Criteria1. Age over 21 years
2. Ischemic left hemispheric stroke verified by imaging (CT or MRI) greater than 6 months ago
3. Residual non-fluent or anomic aphasia, with Western Aphasia Battery-Revised Aphasia Quotient score <60
4. Fluent English speaker prior to stroke
5. Right-handed prior to stroke
6. Ability to give informed consent and understand the tasks involved.
Exclusion Criteria1. History of recurrent stroke, either ischemic or hemorrhagic, in the left middle cerebral artery territory
2. Imaging unavailable
3. Large middle cerebral artery infarct involving entire inferior division (temporo-parietal) territory
4. History of dementia prior to the stroke
5. History of seizure, prior electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulators, or brain surgery
6. Social and/or personal circumstances that interfere with ability to return for therapy and assessment sessions.