Inclusion Criteria- a first-time ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.
- no severe diabetes or peripheral vascular disease causing sensory deficits.
- no cognition problem and follow directions indicated by therapist during experiment.
- motor deficit of the upper limb under (including) Brunnstrom stage IV, either in the arm or hand.
Exclusion Criteria- a cardiac disease or orthopedic problem history,
- medically unstable such as experienced unstable angina, uncontrolled hypertension according to the treating physician, psychological history before stroke.