Inclusion Criteria - Patients were outpatients (age 25 to 84 years) with vascular cognitive impairment that does not fulfill dementia criteria (vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia(CIND)), had been stroke free for 90 days, together with clinical and radiological evidence of stroke and can perform K-TMT-e A. Cognitive impairment did not meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R) criteria for dementia (ie, they did not have both memory impairment and other cognitive impairment that caused functional deficits).
Exclusion Criteria - Exclusion criteria included clinical or radiological evidence of neurodegenerative disorders other than VCI. Patients with major depression or other psychiatric disorders (according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) were excluded. Patients who had experienced a myocardial infarction within 3 months of enrollment were excluded (although these patients could be reconsidered for inclusion once 3 months had elapsed), as were those with clinically relevant hepatic, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, or life-threatening disease. Additional reasons for exclusion included pregnancy, a history of alcohol or drug abuse, and contraindications for MRI studies. Medications that affect the cognitive function were not permitted within the last 30 days. Patients were not permitted to receive anticholinergic drugs or cholinergic agents other than gliatilin during the study period.