Inclusion Criteria- Paresis confined to one side, with substantial motor impairment of the upper limb
- Absence of motor impairment in the unimpaired limb
- Absence of severe concurrent medical problems (e.g. cardiorespiratory impairment, changes in management of hypertension)
- Absence of any acute or chronic painful condition in the upper extremities or spine
- Absence of hemineglect
- Capacity to provide informed consent.