Inclusion Criteria1. first-ever ischemic stroke;
2. no severe cognitive impairments and able to follow instructions;
3. sit on a chair for more than 30 minutes independently.
Exclusion Criteria1. musculoskeletal or cardiac disorders that potentially interferes with experimental tests;
2. diabetic or sensory impairment that attributable to peripheral vascular disease or neuropathy;
3. speech disorder or global aphasia;
4. skin problems at the sites of stimulation;
6.contraindications of heat or ice application.