Mean BP reductions were approximately 20/10 mm Hg both in LCF and HCF patients, with greater reductions in the candesartan group than in the control group. The incidence of dementia was higher in LCF than in HCF patients. A higher cardiovascular event rate observed in LCF patients was explained by older age and other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline. In LCF patients, the MMSE score declined less in the candesartan than in the control group (mean difference 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.97, P = .04). Nonfatal stroke was reduced in the candesartan group in the total sample (28%, P = .04), with no difference between LCF (27%) and HCF (29%) patients. Elderly patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension and slightly impaired cognitive function (MMSE 24 to 28) are at increased risk of dementia and cardiovascular events. This analysis indicates that effective antihypertensive therapy may reduce cognitive decline and stroke incidence in these patients.