Inclusion Criteria- Age 18 and older.
- New small to medium-sized ischemic stroke (defined as less than 1/3 of the MCA territory) in the territory of 70% or greater carotid stenosis.
- Women of child-bearing potential will be included only if there is a negative pregnancy test and they agree to birth control during the treatment period.
Exclusion Criteria- Patients judged to be a poor surgical candidate by the treating physicians.
- Unstable neurological status.