Compared with never having lived in the Stroke Belt, the hazard ratio for Stroke Belt residence in both childhood and adulthood was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.06, 1.43) and for Stroke Belt residence in childhood only was 1.25 (95% CI, 1.02, 1.55). Stroke Belt residence at enrollment but not during childhood was not significantly related to stroke risk (hazard ratio=1.01; 95% CI, 0.70, 1.46), but the small sample in this group resulted in wide CIs. Results changed little after risk factor adjustment, including comprehensive adult socioeconomic measures. Subgroup analyses found similar patterns by sex and birth cohort. In contrast, blacks who had lived in the Stroke Belt in childhood only did not appear to have significantly elevated stroke risk compared with blacks who had never lived in the Stroke Belt.