Inclusion Criteria- age 18 years or older
- 4 months to 5 years after first-time onset of a ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) confirmed by CT, MRI, or clinical criteria
- able to ambulate at least 14 meters with assistive and/or orthotic device and one person assist (minimum Functional Ambulation Classification Level II
- self-selected walking velocity of ≤1.0 meters/second
- approval of primary care physician to participate.
Exclusion Criteria- resting systolic blood pressure greater than 180mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure greater than 110mmHg and/or resting heart rate greater than 100 beats/minute;
- lower limb orthopedic conditions such as prior joint replacement or range of motion limitations;
- spasticity management that included Botox injection (< 4 months earlier) or phenol block injection (< 12 months earlier) to affected lower extremity and intrathecal Baclofen or oral Baclofen (within past 30 days);
- Mini-Mental State Exam score < 24;
- currently receiving lower extremity strengthening exercises or gait training,
- past participation in any study examining the effects of long term (>4 weeks training) body weight support treadmill training; limb loaded pedaling, or lower extremity strengthening;
- plans to move out of the area in the next year,
- no transportation to the study site for all evaluations and intervention sessions.