Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study


Phase 4 Results

Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

1. American Indian men and women 40 years of age or older
2. Type 2 DM (according to 1997 ADA criteria and/or previously diagnosed by former ADA or WHO criteria): fasting plasma glucose >= 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) or 2-hour glucose >= 11.0 mmol/L (>200 mg/dL) after a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test.
3. LDL cholesterol >= 100 mg/dL. within the previous 12 months.
4. Systolic BP >= 130 mm Hg. within the previous 12 months.

Exclusion Criteria

1. New York Heart Association Stage III- IV congestive heart failure.
2. SBP >180 mmHg (2% of population) or patients with known causes of hypertension.
3. History of angioedema.
4. Any medical condition that study physicians believe would interfere with study participation or evaluation of results.
5. Mental incapacity and/or cognitive impairment on the part of the patient that would preclude adequate understanding of, or cooperation with, the study protocol.
6. Serum hepatic transaminase levels  2X the upper limit of normal.
7. Participation in any clinical trial of any investigational medication within 3 months prior to this trial.
8. Renal insufficiency as indicated by serum creatinine >2.0 for women and >2.4 for men.
9. Diagnosis of primary hyperlipidemia in medical record.
10. Secondary hypercholesterolemia due to hypothyroidism or nephrotic syndrome. Patients on stable doses of thyroid replacement therapy will be eligible.
11. Presence of malignancy or history of any cancer except skin cancer within the past 5 years.
12. Pregnancy or lactation. Premenopausal women will be requested to use birth control methods throughout the study and provided educational materials about the risks of using the study medications during pregnancy.
13. Unable to obtain quantifiable carotid measure during screening examination.
14. Concomitant long term use of cyclosporins (Sandimmune), macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin -many generic and brand name forms, clarithromycin, Biaxin, and Zithromax), azole antifungals (itraconazole-Sporanox, ritonavir, Norvir, and nelfinavir (Viracept).
15. Orthostatic hypotension as defined by the following:
1. The individual has a measured fall of >20 mmHg in systolic BP upon standing associated with symptoms lasting more than one minute (or severe symptoms that would not allow further lowering of BP)
2. The standing systolic blood pressure is less than 90 mm.
16. Triglyceride level >350 mg/dl.
17. Severe aortic stenosis with valve area <=1.0 square cm.