Compared to standard treatment goals achieving lower targets for LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and blood pressure in people with diabetes will slow the progression of atherosclerosis as measured by carotid artery thickness, and reduce clinical cardiovascular events such as heart attacks and strokes. This study is a randomized 3-year trial. The primary endpoint will be a combination of various measures of the carotid artery, (which is an easy, non-invasive way to detect cardiovascular disease) and events such as heart attacks and strokes. The study will also look at secondary endpoints such as how well the heart pumps, fat,protein and inflammatory markers in the blood,and kidney function. The study enrolled 549 American Indian men and women with diabetes, > 40 years of age and is being conducted in four field centers involving Indian Health Service/Tribal primary care facilities in Phoenix/Sacaton, Arizona; Chinle, Arizona; Rapid City/Pine Ridge, South Dakota; and Lawton, Oklahoma, with input from American Indian physicians and community members.
Diabetes incidence is increasing rapidly in the United States. Diabetes increases the risk for CVD, the major cause of death in diabetic individuals. The conventional cardiovascular risk factors of hyperlipidemia and hypertension add to the progression of diabetic vascular disease. Appropriate treatment targets for LDL-C and blood pressure in diabetic individuals are currently being debated. The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study is a randomized, open label, 3-year, clinical trial to examine the effects of aggressive LDL-C (goal < 70 mg/dL) and BP (goal < 115/75 mm Hg) reduction versus the standard goals of < 100 mg/dL for LDL-C and < 130/85 mmHg for BP. Five hundred forty-nine American Indian men and women > age 40 with type 2 diabetes were randomized to one of two groups. Lipids and BP are managed using FDA-approved medications in an algorithmic approach. The presence and progression of atherosclerosis are evaluated by carotid ultrasonography; echocardiography assesses cardiac function. The primary endpoint is the composite outcome of change in carotid artery intimal medial thickness and fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular events. These outcomes are combined by using a ranked analysis for carotid thickness and assigning a “worst rank” for a cardiovascular event. Secondary endpoints include carotid plaque score, left ventricular geometry and function, serum CRP, and safety measures. Unique aspects of the study design and analysis plan involve changes during the trial of LDL-C treatment goals for participants with baseline or incident CVD in the conventional group, because of changes in the standard of care, and the use of a composite outcome. Study results will be valuable in understanding the effects of aggressive risk factor reduction on atherosclerosis burden and cardiac function in diabetic individuals in all U.S. populations and will provide evidence for determining optimal LDL-C and BP treatment goals for diabetic patients.
- Allocation: Randomized
- Masking: Open Label
- Purpose: Prevention
- Endpoint: Safety/Efficacy Study
- Intervention: Parallel Assignment
Participants were randomized to aggressive vs standard treatment groups with stepped treatment algorithms defined for both. Primary end point was progression of atherosclerosis measured by common carotid artery intimal medial thickness (IMT). Secondary end points were other carotid and cardiac ultrasonographic measures and clinical events.
|Type||Measure||Time Frame||Safety Issue|
|Primary||Combined carotid artery intimal medial thickness measured at 3 years and clinical CVD events tracked throughout the 3 years.|
|Secondary||Left ventricular (LV) function and geometry; level of stenosis of the carotid artery; number of plaques in the carotid artery; various safety measures, such as liver enzyme levels, clinical myositis, postural hypotension, glomerular filtration rate, urine albumin/creatinine ratio.|
|Primary||combined carotid artery intimal medial thickness measured at 3 years and clinical CVD events tracked throughout the 3 years|
|Secondary||left ventricular (LV) function and geometry|
|Secondary||level of stenosis of the carotid artery|
|Secondary||number of plaques in the carotid artery|
|Secondary||various safety measures, such as liver enzyme levels, clinical myositis, postural hypotension, glomerular filtration rate, urine albumin/creatinine ratio|