Inclusion Criteria- 18 years of age or older
- male or female
- attendee at a participating TIA clinic within 4 weeks of a first suspected TIA
- diagnosed with a TIA or 'minor' stroke, due to atherosclerosis or small vessel occlusion (diagnosis based on the TOAST classification system (69)(70), following neurological examination and neuroimaging (32)).
Exclusion Criteria- patients who have experienced more than one TIA and/or stroke
- inability to give informed consent
- presenting after 4 weeks of their first suspected TIA and/or 'minor' stroke
- contra-indication for exercise training, based on guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine(72)