Inclusion Criteria1. first-ever stroke survivors with unilateral hemispheric lesions from a hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic stroke;
2. stroke onset more than 3 months and less than 3 years prior to study enrollment;
3. no severe cognitive impairments and able to follow instructions;
4. the ability to sit on a chair for more than 30 minutes independently.
Exclusion Criteria1. musculoskeletal or cardiac disorders that could potentially interfere with experimental tests;
2. diabetic history or sensory impairment attributable to peripheral vascular disease or neuropathy;
3. speech disorder or global aphasia;
4. participating in any experimental rehabilitation or drug studies;
5. skin injuries, burns, or fresh scars at the sites of stimulation;
6. contraindication of heat or ice application.