Ten patients were randomized; six patients to surgery, four to the control group. No patient deaths, neurological deterioration, or seizures occurred. There were two infections from nonprotocol-related causes. Of the eight patients completing the treatment, the stimulation plus rehabilitation group improved significantly better than controls in the Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer (P = 0.003 overall) and the hand function score of the Stroke Impact Scale (P = 0.001 overall). In conclusiona, the technique of cortical stimulation to enhance stroke recovery is well tolerated and safe.