Rowing Biomechanics - Effects of (In)Stability and Fatigue "RowBio"

Completed

Phase N/A Results N/A

Trial Description

Rowing simulators are frequently used by rowers, when on-water training is impossible or limited. While such devices are highly valuable to maintain rowers` fitness, a concern was raised about extensive simulator usage. It was postulated that it could lead to technique alterations due to different biomechanical properties compared to on-water rowing. Slide-based rowing simulators were designed to better simulate on-water conditions.
The main aim of the study was to compare the differences in various kinematic and kinetic parameters during a short (20 s) all-out rowing bout and during a 2000-m simulated race, to get a better insight into how different rowing simulator designs affect biomechanics of rowing.
Three different rowing simulators were used in this study: (1) a standard stable/fixed rowing simulator, (2) a slides based rowing simulator, i.e. horizontal plane unstable, and (3) a tilt board based rowing simulator; i.e. frontal plane unstable.
The investigators hypothesised that rowing on different simulators will elicit different biomechanics, including forces, power output, arm and seat movement velocity and amplitude.
Each of the participants completed the tests in all three interventions on separate sessions; random order of interventions. The three sessions took place 7-10 days apart. During each session, the participants completed the all-out 20-s trial first, then the simulated 2000-m race. The aforementioned biomechanical parameters were tracked throughout the trials to be compared between interventions later.

Detailed Description

The measurements will take place at University of Primorska (Koper, Slovenia) and the subjects will be recruited in close collaboration with Rowing Club Piran. Crossover study design will be used. Each participant will be asked to come for three visits that will be scheduled 7-10 days apart. Prior to measurements onset, the whole protocol will be explained to the participant.
Measurement procedure:
- 15-min warm-up
- 20-s maximal (all-out) rowing
- 5-minute break
- 2000-m simulated race
After both trials, blood lactate will be measured. Blood sample will be taken at the the earlobe by a qualified medical personnel.
Maximal performance test: The participant will perform a 20-s interval with maximal effort. The main aim of the measurement is to record the maximal exerted force and power. The custom adapted device (Concept 2 Rowing Simulator) records the positions (seat and handle) and force (legs push and handle pull), which enables for further calculations of segmental and common kinematics and dynamics parameters.
Race simulation: the participant will complete the 2000-m simulated race and will be instructed to aim for the best results. The same measurements as in the maximal performance test will be performed. Wireless heart rate monitor will be used to record the heart frequency throughout the trial.
Equipment:
The custom adapted rowing simulator (Concept 2) allows for the measurements of stoke forces and consequently power outputs, seat and handle velocity, and seat and handle amplitudes. Signals will be transferred to central unit, amplified and converted, and stored on a personal computer.
The interventions (i.e. the studied rowing conditions) will be as follows:
- a standard stable/fixed rowing simulator,
- a slides based rowing simulator, i.e. horizontal plane unstable, and
- a tilt board based rowing simulator; i.e. frontal plane unstable.

Conditions

Interventions

  • Stable rowing simulator Device
    Intervention Desc: a standard stable/fixed rowing simulator
    ARM 1: Kind: Experimental
    Label: Experimental group
    Description: A group of rowers to be administered to intervention on a Stable rowing simulator, a Slides based rowing simulator or a Tilt board based rowing simulator.
  • Slides based rowing simulator Device
    Intervention Desc: a slides based rowing simulator, i.e. horizontal plane unstable
    ARM 1: Kind: Experimental
    Label: Experimental group
    Description: A group of rowers to be administered to intervention on a Stable rowing simulator, a Slides based rowing simulator or a Tilt board based rowing simulator.
  • Tilt board based rowing simulator Device
    Intervention Desc: a tilt board based rowing simulator; i.e. frontal plane unstable
    ARM 1: Kind: Experimental
    Label: Experimental group
    Description: A group of rowers to be administered to intervention on a Stable rowing simulator, a Slides based rowing simulator or a Tilt board based rowing simulator.

Outcomes

Type Measure Time Frame Safety Issue
Primary Rowing performance Three sessions, with randomized order of ergometers (7-10 days apart)
Secondary Arm velocity At the onset of test, at the finish and at the three points in between (at 500, 1000 and 1500 meters of the simulated race) - ref. POM: sessions 7-10 days apart.
Secondary Seat velocity At the onset of test, at the finish and at the three points in between (at 500, 1000 and 1500 meters of the simulated race) - ref. POM: sessions 7-10 days apart.
Secondary Arm force At the onset of test, at the finish and at the three points in between (at 500, 1000 and 1500 meters of the simulated race) - ref. POM: sessions 7-10 days apart.
Secondary Handle amplitude At the onset of test, at the finish and at the three points in between (at 500, 1000 and 1500 meters of the simulated race) - ref. POM: sessions 7-10 days apart.
Secondary Leg force At the onset of test, at the finish and at the three points in between (at 500, 1000 and 1500 meters of the simulated race) - ref. POM: sessions 7-10 days apart.
Secondary Seat amplitude At the onset of test, at the finish and at the three points in between (at 500, 1000 and 1500 meters of the simulated race) - ref. POM: sessions 7-10 days apart.
Secondary Lactate Before and immediately after the test, ref. POM: sessions 7-10 days apart. .

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