Inclusion Criteria- a first ever supra-tentorial unilateral (left hemisphere) ischemic stroke experienced more than three months before the enrollment;
- a deficit of shoulder abductor, arm flexor, and elbow extensor muscles ranging from 2 to 4 on the Medical Research Council scale (MRC);
- a spasticity of biceps brachii (BB), pectoralis major (PM), and latissimus dorsi (LD) (namely, spastic agonist muscles) ranging from 1+ to 3 on the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS);
- age between 50 and 80 years; and (v) Caucasian ethnicity.
Exclusion Criteria- history of concomitant neurodegenerative diseases or brain surgery;
- severe cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination score <23 points) or language impairment (Boston Disability Aphasia Quotient <4/5);
- severe neglect (Catherine Bergego Scale >15/30);
- systemic, bone, or joint disorders, tumors, changes in either central or peripheral sensitivity as well as visual impairments able to interfere with the aims and methods of the research;.(v) concomitant use of drugs for spasticity;
- botulin toxin treatment in the last eight months;.(vii) TMS contraindications;
- history of psychosis;
- limited passive range of motion (shoulder abduction <60°, elbow extension <30°, specified by a goniometric assessment).