Eligibility CriteriaFor all participants (both healthy and patient populations)
Inclusion Criteria1. wrist passive range of motion (ROM) more than 22.5° in flexion/extension
2. sense the vibro-tactile cues on either forearms in order to effectively receive the movement-related feedback
3. resist minimal resistance in gravity-eliminated position (score at least 2+/5 with the physical examination of manual muscle testing (Hislop, Avers, & Brown, 2013)) ) in all wrist movement directions.
Exclusion Criteria1. Regular intake of benzodiazepines.
2. Cognitive impairment: score ≥ 23 on Mini-mental state examination (Folstein, Robins & Helzer, 1983)
3. Depressive symptoms: score ≤ 19 on Beck depression inventory (Beck, Steer, & Carbin,1988).
Inclusion Criteria for Stroke Subjects
1. at least 3 months after stroke
2. whose age are between 30 to 75 years old.
Exclusion Criteria for Subjects undergoing the TMS procedure (Rossi, Hallett, Rossini, & Pascual-Leone, 2009)
- Has implanted metal in the body.
- Diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, major psychiatric conditions, epilepsy, history of seizures in the past 2 years, sleep deprivation, pregnancy, uncontrolled migraine, major traumatic head injury, severe heart disease, increased intracranial pressure, high consumption of alcohol, any conditions that predispose one to seizures
- Is currently taking any pro-epileptic medication (e.g. epileptogenic drugs such as tricyclic antidepressants)
- When no electromyography response can be elicited within the range of the TMS stimulator
- Pregnant at the time of data collection .