Inclusion Criteria1. have single stroke with onset >1 year,
2. have unilateral paresis,
3. are 50 years of age or older,
4. able to stand without aid for at least 15min,
5. have moderate level of motor impairment in the affective upper limb, i.e. 15≤ Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper-extremity(FMA-UE) ≤ 45,
6. have some level of deficit in balance control, i.e. Berg Balance Scale(BBS)< 52/56,
7. have a minimum Snellen visual acuity of 20/40 with/without spectacles,
8. have a minimum Mini-Mental-Status-Examination score of 22/30, and
9. have to be able to follow the training procedures.
Exclusion Criteria1. enrolled in other rehabilitation program in the study duration,
2. have other neurological conditions in addition to stroke (e.g. Parkinson's disease),
3. have unstable cardiovascular disease (e.g. history of heart disease, or poorly controlled hypertension, i.e. blood pressure >160mmHg/100mmHg), or
4. have other serious diseases or conditions (e.g. osteoporosis, recent joint replacement surgery, amputation) that preclude them from participating in the study.