The main goal of the study is to obtain pharmacokinetic and safety data of bumetanide in newborns with refractory seizures. The overall hypothesis is that bumetanide, added to conventional antiepileptic (antiseizure) medications, will be a safe and well tolerated medication, compared with conventional antiepileptic drugs alone.
Seizures occur more often during the newborn period (2-3.5 per 1000 live births) than at any later age. Neonatal seizures can lead to frequent and serious long-term consequences in survivors, such as later epilepsy and significant cognitive and motor disabilities. Unfortunately there are no completely effective drugs to treat neonatal seizures. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) currently used to treat neonatal seizures are generally ineffective and have significant potential for side effects. Furthermore, many of these AEDs have never been tested in a randomized study. Numerous experts have thus emphasized in the last few years the urgent need for randomized trials of potential new treatments for neonatal seizures. The investigators are conducting a pilot study of the drug bumetanide as one such potential and novel treatment. Bumetanide is a commercially available drug that has been used safely in newborns as a diuretic for many years with minimal side effects. Recent basic science research in animals has shown bumetanide to be very effective in reducing seizures in neonatal animals by blocking a specific chloride importer which is highly expressed in neonates but not in children and adults (1). Moreover, these experimental studies have shown bumetanide to be particularly effective against seizures when used in combination with phenobarbital (PB), which is the standard first drug given to treat neonatal seizures (2).
The investigators will conduct a randomized, double-blind, controlled, dose escalation study of BTN as add-on therapy to treat refractory seizures caused by HIE, focal or multi-focal stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, CNS infection, genetic syndrome, focal or diffuse brain malformation, idiopathic or presumed genetic etiology of seizures, or metabolic disorder other than electrolyte disturbances or those caused by renal failure not controlled by an initial loading dose of PB. The trial will test the feasibility of early enrollment of newborns with HIE, rapid application of a full montage EEG, and continuous review of EEG data to detect refractory seizures as soon as they occur following an initial loading dose of PB. When an EEG-proven seizure occurs at least 30 minutes following a loading dose of PB, the newborn will be randomized to receive either BTN or placebo in conjunction with a loading dose of PB. Clinical, laboratory and continuous EEG monitoring data obtained after BTN administration will be analyzed to determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of BTN by comparing data from treatment and standard therapy groups. This study addresses important challenges in trial design and sets the stage for trials to improve treatment of neonatal seizures. Data from this pilot study will be used to guide design of a planned Phase III multicenter trial to test the efficacy of BTN to control refractory neonatal seizures.
- Normal Saline Drug
Intervention Desc: Normal Saline IV given in addition to standard anticonvulsant medication ARM 1: Kind: Experimental Label: 2 Description: Standard phenobarbital therapy plus normal saline placebo
- Bumetanide Drug
Other Names: Bumex Intervention Desc: Bumetanide either 0.1 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg or 0.3 mg/kg IV administered together with standard phenobarbital therapy ARM 1: Kind: Experimental Label: 1 Description: Standard phenobarbital plus either 0.1 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg, or 0.3 mg/kg of bumetanide as determined by the status of the dose escalation design.
- Normal Saline as Placebo Drug
Other Names: 0.9% NaCl Intervention Desc: Normal Saline as placebo for bumetanide either 0.1 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg or 0.3 mg/kg IV administered together with standard phenobarbital therapy ARM 1: Kind: Experimental Label: 2 Description: Standard phenobarbital therapy combined with normal saline as placebo for bumetanide
- Allocation: Randomized
- Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator)
- Purpose: Treatment
- Endpoint: Pharmacokinetics Study
- Intervention: Parallel Assignment
|Type||Measure||Time Frame||Safety Issue|
|Primary||The primary outcome is determination of the pharmacokinetics and safety of bumetanide in newborns with refractory seizures.||Four years are anticipated for collection of the neonatal data||Yes|
|Secondary||A secondary outcome is determination of the feasibility of a novel study design to test antiepileptic drugs to treat neonatal seizures caused by acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in a clinical trial.||Four years are anticipated for collection of the neonatal data.||No|
|Secondary||A secondary outcome is determination of the feasibility of the study design to test antiepileptic drugs to treat neonatal seizures caused by acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in a clinical trial.||5-6 years are anticipated for collection of the neonatal data||No|
- Jensen, Frances, M.D. Lead
- Soul, Janet , M.D. Lead
- Mooney Family Initiative for Translational Studies in Rare Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital
- Harvard Catalyst- Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center
- Charles H. Hood Foundation
- National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
- Translational Research Program, Boston Children's Hospital
- Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy