Patients With Patent Foramen Ovale and Endocardial Device Leads on Apixaban for Prevention of Paradoxical Emboli "PARADOX"

Withdrawn

Phase 2 Results N/A

Trial Description

Patients with a patent foramen ovale in the setting of endocardially placed cardiac implantable electronic devices such as pacemakers, defibrillators, or resynchronization therapies are likely at higher risk for paradoxical embolic events from device lead thrombus. The investigators are conducting this study to determine if the anticoagulant medication Apixaban is more effective at reducing MRI detected brain lesions compared to placebo.

Detailed Description

This is a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial (RCT).
400 patients who meet the study eligibility criteria and consent for enrollment will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to intervention with apixaban or control group with placebo. The randomization will be performed by a computer generated block randomization protocol. The majority of patients will begin intervention with Apixaban or placebo at the time of cardiac device placement (n approximately 300), and at least a quarter of the randomized patients (n ≥100) will include preexisting CIED (≥6 months) in place. Each patient will undergo a baseline MRI and a comprehensive cognitive screening examination. Repeat MRI and cognitive assessment will be performed at a follow-up period of two years from date of randomization (or less if clinical stroke/TIA occurs prior to this follow-up period). All subjects will receive a phone call at 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months post-randomization to assess for endpoints and adverse events, as well as changes in clinical status, medications, and to assess study medication compliance.

Conditions

Interventions

  • Placebo Drug
    Intervention Desc: Patients who meet the study eligibility criteria and consent for enrollment will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to intervention with apixaban or control group with placebo. The randomization will be performed by a computer generated block randomization protocol. Randomization will be stratified according to pre-existing CIED (≥6 months) vs. new implantation (<6 months from date of implant), in order to ensure at least 25% of patients have longstanding lead placement.
    ARM 1: Kind: Experimental
    Label: Placebo
    Description: Control group: Matched placebo by mouth two times daily in addition to usual medical therapy. Planned treatment duration is 2 years.
  • Apixaban Drug
    Other Names: BMS-562247
    Intervention Desc: Patients who meet the study eligibility criteria and consent for enrollment will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to intervention with apixaban or control group with placebo. The randomization will be performed by a computer generated block randomization protocol. Randomization will be stratified according to pre-existing CIED (≥6 months) vs. new implantation (<6 months from date of implant), in order to ensure at least 25% of patients have longstanding lead placement.
    ARM 1: Kind: Experimental
    Label: Apixaban
    Description: Intervention group: Apixaban 5 mg by mouth two times daily in addition to usual medical therapy (or 2.5 mg two times daily for subjects who fulfilled any 2 of the following criteria: age≥80 years, body weight≤60kg, and/or serum creatinine≥1.5 mg/dL). Planned treatment duration is 2 years

Trial Design

  • Allocation: Randomized
  • Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
  • Purpose: Prevention
  • Endpoint: Safety/Efficacy Study
  • Intervention: Single Group Assignment

Outcomes

Type Measure Time Frame Safety Issue
Primary Increase in number of new brain lesions detected on MRI ≥3 mm in size at 2 years post-baseline MRI (or earlier if premature termination of study follow-up). 2 years Yes

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