Inclusion Criteria- Subjects will represent the diagnostic categories of single event brain stem injury, right cortical stroke and left cortical stroke.
- Chronic dysphagia at least 6 months post onset secondary to single neurological event, brain stem, right cortical or left cortical stroke confirmed with CT or MRI
- Diagnosis of chronic pharyngeal phase dysphagia based on clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluation completed within 3 weeks of beginning treatment.
- Must be at least 12 months post onset with no substantial recovery of swallowing function. If patients have received prior swallowing treatment, they must be at least three months post the termination of direct treatment.
- Mini Mental Status Exam score >21
Exclusion Criteria- history of pre-existing dysphagia or neurologic disease prior to the onset of the current disorder.
- MMSE score < 21