Inclusion Criteria- greater than 21 years old
- more than 6 months from first, unilateral index stroke
- unilateral paresis of the upper limb indexed as greater than or equal to 20% slowness in functional reaching compared to non-paretic limb
- UEFM less than or equal to 61 out of 66.
Exclusion Criteria- subjects who cannot perform reaching with shoulder
- severe cognitive deficit (less than or equal to 24 on Mini-Mental State examination.
- contraindication to TMS or MRI including: seizures, ongoing use of certain neuro- or psycho-active medications, implants, or pacemaker.
- currently receiving outpatient therapy.