Inclusion Criteria- First onset at age ≤ 80 years, no other severe medical complications;
- Clear consciousness or mild disturbance of consciousness; paralysis of upper and lower extremities on one side with grade 0-3 muscle strength in paralyzed limbs;
- CT reveals early massive cerebral infarction (without cerebral hemorrhage or old infarction);
- Blood pressure within, or higher than, the normal range.
Exclusion Criteria- Clinical manifestations are noticeably improved before treatment;
- Disorders of consciousness, manifesting as severe lethargy or coma;
- Mild neurological deficits, such as pure sensory disturbances, ataxia, dysarthria, and hemiparesis;
- Severe hypotension (systolic pressure < 90 mmHg, diastolic pressure < 60 mmHg);
- Heart rate < 60 BPM; sinus bradycardia;
- Severe heart, brain or kidney dysfunction, or malignant tumor.