Inclusion Criteria- Patients with a history of stroke and paroxysmal, persistent or permanent AF.
- Ischemic stroke or TIA with documented paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation. A TIA will meet inclusion criteria as a sudden-onset focal neurological symptom or sign lasting at least 10 minutes but less than 24 hours with or without evidence of acute brain ischemia on diffusion weighted MRI imaging.
- Eligible symptoms INCLUDE hemiplegia or hemiparesis, monoplegia, or language disturbance other than isolated dysarthria.
- Symptoms that will NOT QUALIFY AS TIA INCLUDE transient monocular blindness in both eyes, dysarthria, vertigo,isolated sensory symptoms, confusion, memory loss, nonspecific complaints of dizziness, or syncope.
Exclusion Criteria- Recent stroke (< 1 month).
- Age < 18 or > 80 years; Ejection Fraction < 25%• Presence of left atrial appendage thrombus on CT or echocardiography
- Previous empyema or thoracic surgery, preventing access to the pulmonary veins via thoracoscopy.
- Left Atrial Diameter > 55mm.
- Contraindication to anticoagulation with Coumadin.
- Mitral insufficiency (> 2+)
- • • Contraindications to MRI
- •Artificial heart valve prosthesis
- Aneurysm clips
- Implanted drug infusion device or pump
- Any type of neurotranstimulator
- Any type of bone growth stimulator
- Cochlear implants or inner ear prosthesis
- Any intravascular coils, filters, or stents
- Shrapnel or bullets
- Other metallic implants or devices specify which
- Permanently tattooed eyeliner
- Are you pregnant or suspect to be pregnant?