The purpose of the study is to evaluate the ability of IVIG to affect the rate of progression of brain ischemia, as evidenced by neuroimaging.
The results of an ongoing epidemiological study indicate that patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) on IVIG replacement therapy have an overall prevalence of stroke that is 5 times less than in the general population. Even more striking is the absence of stroke in IVIG-treated PID patients over 65, while in the same general population age group the stroke prevalence goes up to 8.1%. This suggests that the degree of stroke protection correlates with the length of IVIG treatment, since older PID patients have been treated with IVIG significantly longer than younger ones.
Two pre-clinical studies demonstrated the effectiveness of IVIG preparations in improving the clinical outcome of stroke and at the same time provided evidence of the role of complement fragments in the pathogenesis of ischemia-induced brain damage. Scavenging of these active fragments by IVIG is the likely mechanism of beneficial effect. In one of these studies CSL's own Privigen preparation was used. Considering that it exhibited in-vitro scavenging abilities more pronounced than several other IVIG preparations, and that its in-vivo scavenging capacity was also proven in a relevant animal model, a need to test this preparation in stroke patients is warranted. In addition, activation of complement and the level of activated fragments in humans seem to correlate with the severity of the disease, making them an ideal therapeutic target.
Trial Stopped: difficult recruitment and new black box warning for IVIG
- Normal Saline Drug
Other Names: 0.9%NaCl Intervention Desc: Normal Saline is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution for fluid and electrolyte replenishment. It contains no antimicrobial agents. The pH is 5.0 (4.5 to 7.0). It contains 9 g/L Sodium Chloride with an osmolarity of 308 mOsmol/L and 154 mEq/L Sodium and Chloride. The infusion will start at 0.5 ml/kg/hr for the first 30 minutes and then increased to 2.5 ml/kg/hr for 3-4 hours. ARM 1: Kind: Experimental Label: Normal Saline Description: The placebo is the normal saline. Since saline solution will be infused at the volume equivalent to that in which the intended dose of immunoglobulin molecules will be delivered, the placebo (comparator) arm will also serve as a control for the volume of fluid infused to the treatment arm participants.
- Privigen Biological
Other Names: IVIg; Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human); Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human), 10% Liquid Intervention Desc: 10% liquid intravenous immunoglobulin at a single dose of 1.0g/kg, run at 0.5ml/kg/hr for the first 30 minutes, then increased to 2.5ml/kg/hr until complete (~3-4 hours depending on weight). ARM 1: Kind: Experimental Label: Privigen Description: The IVIG preparation to be used is 10% liquid (Privigen). IVIG will be applied at a dose of 1.0g/kg, which is approximately 1/2 of the optimal dose used for other immuno/inflammatory indications. The infusion will start at 0.5 ml/kg/hr for the first 30 minutes, to watch for the signs of hypersensitivity to immunoglobulins, and then increased to 2.5 ml/kg/hr, two times slower than the recommended rate indicated in the product package insert (5 ml/kg/hr). Such a low, single dose has not been associated with hyperviscosity and together with a slow infusion will safeguard against occurrence of adverse events related to IVIG infusions. They will receive a total of 1g/kg and depending on patient's weight, it will take between 3.5 to 4+ hours to infuse that amount.
- Allocation: Randomized
- Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
- Purpose: Treatment
- Endpoint: Safety/Efficacy Study
- Intervention: Parallel Assignment
|Type||Measure||Time Frame||Safety Issue|
|Primary||Post-IVIG DWI/PI mismatch measurement||3 days||No|
|Secondary||Favorable clinical outcome||90 days||No|
|Secondary||Clinical outcome measure by NIHSS||3 days||No|
|Secondary||Active complement fragment levels||90 days||No|
|Secondary||Adverse Events||90 days||Yes|