Hypertension (high blood pressure) can often cause neurological worsening in patients with stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Intravenous infusion of nicardipine (Cardene) for control of hypertension is FDA approved. The disadvantage of Nicardipine IV drip is the relative large volume of fluid needed (up to 150 cc/hr). The purpose of this study is to evaluate safety and efficacy of double or triple concentrated peripheral intravenous (IV) Nicardipine.
Hypertension can often cause neurological worsening in patients with either ICH or SAH. Hypertension has been related to increased incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in patients who are treated with thrombolytics or on anticoagulation. Timely control of hypertension is directly related to the outcome of these patients. Furthermore, unlike in the conditions of hypertensive emergency or urgency, gentle titration to control the blood pressure is recommended in patients with either ischemic cerebral infarction or hemorrhage. Therefore the ideal agent to control hypertension in these patients would have these characteristics:
- Rapid onset of action
- Predictable dose response
- Titratable to desired BP
- Minimal dosage adjustments
- Minimal adverse effects
- No increase in INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE (ICP)
- Easy transition to oral formulation for long-term maintenance
Currently, only IV sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerine, enalapril and esmolol are used for controlling blood pressure in patients with IS, ICH and SAH. These agents are difficult to titrate and may potentially be harmful to brain cells.
Nicardipine offers several advantages in blood pressure control. It may cause dilatation of the coronary vessels while has no effect on cardiac conduction. It is not associated with coronary steal. As the only IV calcium channel blocker approved for the treatment of hypertension, nicardipine is vasoselective, and has a rapid onset and precisely controllable in a variety of patient types. It is as effective as sodium nitroprusside with fewer dose adjustments. It has documented safety with a low incidence of side effects. It requires minimal dose adjustments.
The disadvantage of Nicardipine IV drip is the relative large volume of fluid needed (up to 150 cc/hr). In patients with ischemic cerebral stroke (IS) or hemorrhage (ICH), intravenous infusion of large volume can contribute to cerebral edema or increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). If the infusion of nicardipine can be double or triple concentrated without the need of a central line, it not only offers titratable BP control, but also less overall volume to infuse the drug.
This is a phase IV prospective, open-label, dose regimen study of double or triple concentration nicardipine infusion for controlling blood pressure in patients with either ischemic cerebral infarction (IS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Once the patient has the need for rapid control of blood pressure, he or she will be eligible for the study. The first 25 patients will be consented for the double dose treatment and the next 25 patients will be consented for the triple dose treatment. The patient will be followed during the infusion period for efficacy and safety.
- Nicardipine (Cardene)Drug
Other Names: Cardene, nicardipine hydrochloride
- Allocation: Non-Randomized
- Masking: Open Label
- Purpose: Treatment
- Endpoint: Safety Study
- Intervention: Single Group Assignment
25 patients will receive double concentrate dose; the other (n=25) with the triple concentrate dose. The treatment period will be determined by clinician’s clinical judgment for the particular patient. An average of 72 hours of infusion may be needed until the BP is ideally controlled by other agents.
|Type||Measure||Time Frame||Safety Issue|
|Primary||Demonstrate the feasibility and safety of double and triple concentrated peripheral intravenous Nicardipine for patients in the Neuroscience Critical Care Unit.|
|Secondary||Time and dosage adjustment needed to reach the target BP range; safety; to evaluate the tolerance of the double or triple concentrated Nicardipine.|
|Primary||• Demonstrate the feasibility and safety of double and triple concentrated peripheral intravenous Nicardipine for patients in the Neuroscience Critical Care Unit.|
|Secondary||Time and dosage adjustment needed to reach the target BP range|
|Secondary||To evaluate the tolerance of the double or triple concentrated Nicardipine|