Inclusion Criteria- right handed (as determined by the Edinburgh battery),
- English as native language.
Exclusion Criteria- appreciable deficits in hearing,
- appreciable problems with articulation,
- appreciable accent schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression,
- any neurological disorder associated with cognitive impairment or neuroanatomic abnormality,
- language-based learning disorder,
- any implanted metal device (precludes use of tDCS), any implanted cardiac pacemaker,
- dementia or mini-mental state exam,
- <24 estimated verbal intelligence,
- <70 active or prior history of seizure disorder, family history of seizure disorder, prescribed seizure inducing medication.