Improving Arm Mobility and Use After Stroke


Phase 3 Results



  • Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris D, Giuliani C, Light KE, Nichols-Larsen D; EXCITE Investigators. Effect of constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function 3 to 9 months after stroke: the EXCITE randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2006 Nov 1;296(17):2095-104. Pubmed ID:17077374
  • Wolf SL, Blanton S, Baer H, Breshears J, Butler AJ. Repetitive task practice: a critical review of constraint-induced movement therapy in stroke. Neurologist. 2002 Nov;8(6):325-38. Pubmed ID:12801434
  • Aycock DM, Blanton S, Clark PC, Wolf SL. What is constraint-induced therapy? Rehabil Nurs. 2004 Jul-Aug;29(4):114-5, 121. Review. Pubmed ID:15222091
  • Ostendorf CG, Wolf SL. Effect of forced use of the upper extremity of a hemiplegic patient on changes in function. A single-case design. Phys Ther. 1981 Jul;61(7):1022-8. Pubmed ID:7243897
  • Wolf SL, Lecraw DE, Barton LA, Jann BB. Forced use of hemiplegic upper extremities to reverse the effect of learned nonuse among chronic stroke and head-injured patients. Exp Neurol. 1989 May;104(2):125-32. Pubmed ID:2707361
  • Taub E, Crago JE, Burgio LD, Groomes TE, Cook EW 3rd, DeLuca SC, Miller NE. An operant approach to rehabilitation medicine: overcoming learned nonuse by shaping. J Exp Anal Behav. 1994 Mar;61(2):281-93. Pubmed ID:8169577
  • Taub E: Somatosensory deafferentation research with monkeys: Implications for rehabilitation medicine. In Ince LP (ed.) Behavioral Psychology in Rehabilitation Medicine: Clinical Applications. New York: Williams Wilkins, 1980, 370-401
  • Taub E, Miller NE, Novack TA, Cook EW 3rd, Fleming WC, Nepomuceno CS, Connell JS, Crago JE. Technique to improve chronic motor deficit after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1993 Apr;74(4):347-54. Pubmed ID:8466415
  • Taub E, Morris DM. Constraint-induced movement therapy to enhance recovery after stroke. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2001 Jul;3(4):279-86. Review. Pubmed ID:11389792
  • Clark PC, Shields CG, Aycock D, Wolf SL. Preliminary reliability and validity of a family caregiver conflict scale for stroke. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2003 Spring;18(2):77-82, 92. Pubmed ID:12732800
  • Butler AJ, Wolf SL. Transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess cortical plasticity: a critical perspective for stroke rehabilitation. J Rehabil Med. 2003 May(41 Suppl):20-6. Review. Pubmed ID:12817653
  • Winstein CJ, Miller JP, Blanton S, Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris D, Nichols D, Wolf S. Methods for a multisite randomized trial to investigate the effect of constraint-induced movement therapy in improving upper extremity function among adults recovering from a cerebrovascular stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2003 Sep;17(3):137-52. Pubmed ID:14503435
  • Park SW, Butler AJ, Cavalheiro V, Alberts JL, Wolf SL. Changes in serial optical topography and TMS during task performance after constraint-induced movement therapy in stroke: a case study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2004 Jun;18(2):95-105. Pubmed ID:15228805
  • Wolf SL, Butler AJ, Campana GI, Parris TA, Struys DM, Weinstein SR, Weiss P. Intra-subject reliability of parameters contributing to maps generated by transcranial magnetic stimulation in able-bodied adults. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004 Aug;115(8):1740-7. Pubmed ID:15261852

Related Links

Sources for Trial Information

  • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)