Identification the Cause of Silent Cerebral infarctiON in Healthy Subjects (ICONS) "ICONS"

Completed

Phase N/A Results N/A

Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

Healthy subjects
- Subjects with age over 20 years
- Subjects who consecutively visited a health promotion center for a health screening examination that included routine laboratory test, cardiac work-ups (12-lead electrocardiography and/or echocardiography), and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA)
- Subjects who showed silent brain infarction (SCI) which was defined as a focal hyperintensity lesion 3 mm or large in diameter in the fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images without a history of a corresponding stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)
- Subjects who performed agitated saline transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring
Patients with acute stroke (both cryptogenic embolic stroke and conventional stroke mechanisms)
- Patients with age over 20 year
- Patients with focal neurologic deficits presented within 7 days of symptom onset
- Patients with acute ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted image (DWI)
- Patients who performed agitated saline TCD monitoring

Exclusion Criteria

Healthy subjects
- Subjects with the presence of previous history of stroke or TIA
- Subjects with the presence of dementia on history taking or mini-mental status examination
- Subjects with the presence of proximal source of embolism, including atrial fibrillation or significant (≥50%) stenosis on cervicocerebral artery on MRA or carotid Duplex
- Subjects who had SCI restricted within perforator territory (basal ganglia or pons) suggesting that microangiopathy rather than embolism could be the main mechanism of SCI
- Subjects in whom agitated saline TCD monitoring was not performed or those who had poor temporal windows
Patients with acute stroke (both cryptogenic embolic stroke and conventional stroke mechanisms)
- Patients in whom agitated saline TCD monitoring was not performed or those who had poor temporal windows