Age, sex, cranial CT findings, level of consciousness, and time to treatment were similar between the 2 groups; significant differences were noted in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (20 [range, 18 to 22] and 17 [range, 16 to 18] for MH and CE, respectively) but were not present when NIHSS score was corrected for aphasia (17 [range, 15 to 19] and 17 [range, 16 to 18] for MH and CE, respectively). Mortality was 12% for CE and 47% for MH; 1 patient treated with MH died as a result of treatment complications (sepsis) and 3 of intracranial pressure crises that occurred during rewarming. Duration of mechanical ventilation and of neurological intensive care unit stay did not significantly differ, but duration of catecholamine application and maximal catecholamine dosage were significantly higher in the MH group. In patients with severe ischemic stroke, CE results in lower mortality and lower complication rates compared with MH. Both treatment modalities, however, are associated with intensive medical treatment and a prolonged stay in the neurological intensive care unit.