Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) for Upper Extremity Recovery in Stroke


Phase N/A Results



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  • Chae J, Bethoux F, Bohine T, Dobos L, Davis T, Friedl A. Neuromuscular stimulation for upper extremity motor and functional recovery in acute hemiplegia. Stroke. 1998 May;29(5):975-9. Pubmed ID:9596245
  • Powell J, Pandyan AD, Granat M, Cameron M, Stott DJ. Electrical stimulation of wrist extensors in poststroke hemiplegia. Stroke. 1999 Jul;30(7):1384-9. Pubmed ID:10390311
  • Francisco G, Chae J, Chawla H, Kirshblum S, Zorowitz R, Lewis G, Pang S. Electromyogram-triggered neuromuscular stimulation for improving the arm function of acute stroke survivors: a randomized pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 May;79(5):570-5. Pubmed ID:9596400
  • Cauraugh J, Light K, Kim S, Thigpen M, Behrman A. Chronic motor dysfunction after stroke: recovering wrist and finger extension by electromyography-triggered neuromuscular stimulation. Stroke. 2000 Jun;31(6):1360-4. Pubmed ID:10835457
  • Cauraugh JH, Kim S. Two coupled motor recovery protocols are better than one: electromyogram-triggered neuromuscular stimulation and bilateral movements. Stroke. 2002 Jun;33(6):1589-94. Pubmed ID:12052996
  • Sonde L, Gip C, Fernaeus SE, Nilsson CG, Viitanen M. Stimulation with low frequency (1.7 Hz) transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (low-tens) increases motor function of the post-stroke paretic arm. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1998 Jun;30(2):95-9. Pubmed ID:9606771
  • Sonde L, Kalimo H, Fernaeus SE, Viitanen M. Low TENS treatment on post-stroke paretic arm: a three-year follow-up. Clin Rehabil. 2000 Feb;14(1):14-9. Pubmed ID:10688340
  • Bowman BR, Baker LL, Waters RL. Positional feedback and electrical stimulation: an automated treatment for the hemiplegic wrist. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1979 Nov;60(11):497-502. Pubmed ID:508075
  • Kraft GH, Fitts SS, Hammond MC. Techniques to improve function of the arm and hand in chronic hemiplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992 Mar;73(3):220-7. Pubmed ID:1543423
  • Kimberley TJ, Lewis SM, Auerbach EJ, Dorsey LL, Lojovich JM, Carey JR. Electrical stimulation driving functional improvements and cortical changes in subjects with stroke. Exp Brain Res. 2004 Feb;154(4):450-60. Epub 2003 Nov 15. Pubmed ID:14618287

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