Inclusion Criteria- Patients affected by stroke from cerebral ischemia or hemorrhage that had occurred ≤ 30 days before, with Ashworth spasticity index < 3.
Exclusion Criteria- orthopedic limitation (amputations, irreducible articular limitations, advanced osteoarthritis, active rheumatoid arthritis);
- peripheral nerve injury;
- uncontrolled inflammation;
- severe cognitive and behavioral disorders;
- neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases;
- Ashworth spasticity index ≥ 3.