Eligibility CriteriaInclusion criteria: Subjects will be included if they
- are between 55 and 85 years of age;
- have been diagnosed with a first unilateral ischemic brain injury or intracerebral hemorrhage by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography within the previous 1 to 6 years;
- have been discharged from all rehabilitation services at least 6 months before program begins;
- are able to work independently at least 10 meters with or without an assistive device;
- have low balance self-efficacy (The Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale score of <80);
- are able to score > 7 out of 10 on the Chinese version of Abbreviated Mental Test; and
- are able to follow instructions and provide written informed consent.
Exclusion criteria: Subjects will be excluded if they
- have any additional medical, cardiovascular, orthopaedic, or psychiatric or psychological condition that would hinder proper treatment or assessment;
- have receptive dysphasia;
- have significant lower peripheral neuropathy; or
- are involved in a drug studies or other clinical trial.