Inclusion Criteria- An ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke more than 6 months prior to entry into the study;
- trace ability to move the wrist and fingers in extension;
- voluntary shoulder elevation to approximately 45 deg;
- be between the ages of 21 and 90.
Exclusion Criteria- Have cognitive deficits that could negatively affect their ability to complete protocols as evidenced by a score of 24 or less on the Folstein Mini - Mental State Examination (Bleeker, 1988);
- have excessive pain in any joint of the affected extremity that could limit ability to cooperate with the protocols;
- have an upper extremity injury or conditions prior to stroke that could limit participation;
- have severes hemispatial neglect.
- have a full score of 24 on the distal section of the Fugl-Myer test (FM) (Fugl-Meyer 1975); and
- have severe sensory loss.