The objective of ESPRIT was to compare the efficacy and safety of mild anticoagulation or a combination treatment of aspirin and dipyridamole with the efficacy and safety of treatment with aspirin alone after cerebral ischemia of arterial origin.
Low-dose aspirin (ASA) (at least 30 mg/day) prevents only 13% of subsequent vascular events after minor cerebral ischemia of arterial origin. Anticoagulation (AC) has been proven highly effective in preventing vascular events after myocardial infarction and after cerebral ischemia in patients with atrial fibrillation. A previous study on the effects of AC after cerebral ischemia of arterial origin (SPIRIT) showed that high intensity AC (INR 3.0 to 4.5) is not safe, but that mild AC (INR 2.0 to 3.0) was. The 2nd European Stroke Prevention Trial (ESPS-2) reported a 22% relative risk reduction of the combination of ASA and dipyridamole (DIP) above that of ASA only; its results, however, are subject to debate.
Study design: ESPRIT was an open randomised controlled trial allocating patients who experienced a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or a non-disabling ischemic stroke to either:
A. oral AC (INR 2.0 to 3.0);
B. the combination of DIP (400 mg daily) plus ASA (30-325 mg/day); or
C. ASA only (same dose).
The mean follow-up was three years. Primary outcome was the composite of vascular death, stroke, myocardial infarction or major bleeding. Outcome assessment is blind.
- Allocation: Randomized
- Masking: Open Label
- Purpose: Prevention
- Endpoint: Safety/Efficacy Study
- Intervention: Parallel Assignment
|Type||Measure||Time Frame||Safety Issue|
|Primary||The combined event of death from all vascular causes, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction or major bleeding complication, whichever happens first during follow-up|
|Secondary||Death from all causes|
|Secondary||death from vascular causes|
|Secondary||death from vascular causes or nonfatal stroke|
|Secondary||fatal or nonfatal stroke|
|Secondary||death from vascular causes, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction or vascular intervention|
|Secondary||major bleeding complications|
|Secondary||amputations of lower extremities|
|Secondary||retinal infarction or bleeding|
- UMC Utrecht Lead