Inclusion Criteria- age 18-80 years;
- single ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke in a cerebral hemisphere, documented by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI);
- stroke onset at least six months before;
- hand paresis with preserved ability to perform all tasks of the Jebsen-Taylor Test (JTT).
Exclusion Criteria- previous strokes;
- epilepsy and other neurological conditions;
- proprioceptive or tactile anesthesia;
- shoulder or hand pain;
- severe joint deformity;
- severe chronic disease;
- inability to give provide informed consent due to severe aphasia or cognitive impairment;
- left handedness before the stroke.