Effects of Epidurally Administered Ropivacaine Concentration on the Hemodynamic Parameters "PNU"


Phase 4 Results N/A

Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria: all of the followings needed.
- ASA I or II patients
- 18 to 65 years old
- undergoing major upper abdominal surgery
- planned combined thoracic epidural analgesia and general anesthesia

Exclusion Criteria

- any contraindication to epidural analgesia
- allergy to local anesthetics of the amide type
- communication difficulties that would prevent reliable assessment
- known significant cardiac or respiratory disease
- pregnant
- patients who were not in cardiac sinus rhythm