Inclusion Criteria- Post-hospitalization;
- premorbid reading at the 8th grade level or higher based on the participant's/family's stated years of formal education;
- post-stroke aphasia/left middle cerebral artery (MCA) CVA based on electronic medical record (EMR) and computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging reports, or consult with the neurologist;
- intact left amygdala and left extrastriate cortex based on EMR and CT/MRI imaging reports, or consult with the neurologist;
- reliability in answering yes/no questions as determined by a 90% score on yes/no comprehension therapy tasks during regular speech therapy.
Capacity to provide informed consent concerning a study involving an intervention with music therapy: determined by the physician who refers the patient.
Exclusion Criteria- Co-morbidities diagnosed and reported in the EMR or shown on CT scan or MRI including past history of stroke with residual symptoms, dementia, Parkinson's disease, head injury, etc.;
- hemianopsia or other visual field defects affecting vision for reading, and in particular right homonymous hemi- or inferior quadrantanopsia;
- previous history of learning disabilities in reading/writing;
- significant psychiatric diagnosis;
- English as a Second Language or non-English language.