Inclusion Criteria- Subjects will be recruited from local self-help groups through poster advertising.
- Subjects will be included if they are between 55 and 80 years of age
- Have been diagnosed with ischaemic brain injury or intracerebral hemorrhage by MRI or computed tomography within the previous 1 to 10 years
- have volitional control of the non-paretic arm and at least minimal antigravity movement in the shoulder of the paretic arm,
- have at least 5º in wrist extension in the antigravity position,
- score > 6 out of 10 in the abbreviated Mental Test, and
- are able to follow instructions and give informed consent.
Exclusion Criteria- • have any additional medical, cardiovascular or orthopedic condition
- use a cardiac pacemaker
- have receptive dysphasia
- have a significant upper limb peripheral neuropathy
- are involved in drug studies or other clinical trials, or
- have severe shoulder, elbow, wrist or finger contractures that would preclude a passive range of motions of the arm, and
- have a skin allergy that would prevent electrical stimulation.