Inclusion Criteria- First ever ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or former stroke without any significant residual motor impairment
- 3 months post stroke
- Impaired arm motor function at Brunnstrom stage 3-5
- Age 18 years or older
Exclusion Criteria- severe cognitive impairment defined as < 20 on Mini Mental State Examination
- visual disorders or neglect limiting the ability to comply with treatment regimen
- orthopedic problem or other neurological diagnosis that makes the UE dysfunction.