The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of two different dual-task balance interventions for stroke patients and older adults.
I. Title of Study:
Comparative efficacy of two different dual-task balance interventions on balance, gait, and cognitive performance under single- and dual-task conditions in stroke patients and older adults
II. Study Objectives:
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of two different dual-task balance interventions for stroke patients and older adults. Specifically, the investigators will compare the immediate and retention effects of motor and cognitive dual-task balance training [MCDT] and cognitive dual-task balance training [CDT]) on balance, gait, and cognition under single- and dual-task conditions in individuals with stroke (Aim 1) and elderly people (Aim 2). The third aim of this study is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying changes in balance, gait, and cognitive performance of stroke patients and older adults after MCDC and CDT (Aim 3).
III. Study Design A prospective randomized control trial will be conducted at medical centers in this study. Fifty stroke patients and 48 elderly people will be randomly allocated to either MCDT or CDT group. Both groups will receive 12 hours of training over 4 weeks at progressively increasing task difficulty (60 minutes per session, three times a week, for four weeks). The CDT group will undertake dual-task balance training and concurrently perform only cognitive tasks with instruction of a variable priority. The MCDT group will train the same set of balance/gait activities as the CDT while simultaneously performing motor or cognitive tasks with instruction of a variable priority. During each session, all participants practice shifting attention between tasks by spending half of the training attention focus on the balance task, and half focus on the secondary cognitive or motor tasks. A blinded assessor will conduct three assessments at baseline, post intervention, and 1-month follow-up. At baseline, all participants will be examined balance, gait, and cognitive performance under single-task (standing, walking, cognitive tasks only) and dual-task conditions (standing/walking while performing cognitive tasks). Six cognitive tasks (simple reaction time task, serial subtraction task, Stroop task, auditory Stroop task, spatial memory task, and choice reaction time task) will be used to examine dual-task performance because these tasks represent different domains of cognitive function (information processing speed, working memory, and executive function). The primary outcome measure of balance, gait, and cognition will be the sway index, gait speed, and composite score of accuracy and reaction time under single- and dual-task conditions. Secondary outcome measures will include: Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test under single- and dual-task conditions, Functional Gait Assessment, Activity-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Chair Stand Test, and Patient Global Impression of Change. Repeated measure ANOVA will be used to compare measurements at baseline, after training, and follow-up between the groups.
Number of Planned Patients: 50 stroke patients and 48 elderly people Duration of the Study: 2017/08/01～2020/07/31
- Motor-cognitive dual-task training Device
Other Names: MCDT Intervention Desc: Participants in the motor-cognitive dual-task training group will will receive an individually-progressed program of dual-task balance/gait training aimed at improving standing balance, sit-to-stand, and walking abilities under motor-cognitive dual-task conditions. ARM 1: Kind: Experimental Label: motor-cognitive dual-task training Description: Participants in the motor-cognitive dual-task training group will participate in 12-session programs administered for 60 minutes each session, 3 times per week for 4 weeks.
- Cognitive dual-task training Device
Other Names: CDT Intervention Desc: Participants in the cognitive dual-task training group will perform only cognitive tasks (verbal fluency tasks, calculation tasks, and visual discrimination tasks) concurrently with the balance/gait tasks. ARM 1: Kind: Experimental Label: cognitive dual-task training Description: Participants in the cognitive dual-task training group will also participate in a 12-session program conducted 60 minutes per session, 3 days a week, for a total of 4 weeks.
|Type||Measure||Time Frame||Safety Issue|
|Primary||sway index||10 minutes|
|Primary||gait speed||5 minutes|
|Primary||composite score||10 minutes|
|Primary||cognitive-motor interference (CMI)||20 minutes|
|Secondary||Berg Balance Scale (BBS)||5-10 minutes|
|Secondary||Timed Up and Go Test||2minutes|
|Secondary||Functional Gait Assessment (FGA)||10 minutes|
|Secondary||Activity-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC)||3 minutes|
|Secondary||Chair Stand Test.||1 minute|
|Secondary||Patient Global Impression of Change Scale (PGIC)||1 minute|