Inclusion Criteria1. able to reach Brunnstrom stage III or above for the proximal part of the affected upper limb(Brunnstrom, 1970);
2. considerable nonuse of the affected upper limb (amount-of-use [AOU] score < 2.5 on the MAL) (Taub, Miller, Novack, et al. ,1993);
3. no serious cognitive deficits (score > 24 on the Mini Mental-State Exam) (Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975);
4. no balance problems compromising safety when wearing the constraint device; and,
5. no excessive spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale ≤ 2 at any joint of the upper limb) (Bohannon, & Smith, 1987).