Inclusion Criteria- Participants must have sustained a left hemisphere stroke.
- Participants must be fluent speakers of English by self-report.
- Participants must be capable of giving informed consent or indicating another to provide informed consent.
- Participants must be age 18 or older.
- Participants must be premorbidly right handed.
- Participants must be at least 6 months post stroke.
- Participants must have an aphasia diagnosis as confirmed by the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE) Short Form.
- Participants must achieve at least 65% accuracy on screening task (comparable to treatment task) on 1 of 3 attempts
Exclusion Criteria- Participants with lesion involving the right cerebellum
- Previous neurological or psychiatric disease.
- Seizures during the previous 12 months.
- Uncorrected visual loss or hearing loss by self-report.
- Use of medications that lower the seizure threshold (e.g., methylphenidate, amphetamine salts).
- Use of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) antagonists (e.g., memantine).
- > 80% (140 out of 175) correct responses on the Philadelphia Naming Test at baseline.
- History of brain surgery or any metal in the head.
- Scalp sensitivity (per participant report).